Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Symptoms
Reliving the event
Avoiding situations that trigger memories of the event
Negative Outlook
Hyperarousal
Causes
Traumatic experiences such as war or a natural disaster
Can be caused through inherited mental and personality traits
Life experiences (ex. sexual abuse)
Hormones and chemical imbalance
Treatments
Cognitive therapy
Exposure therapy
EDMR
Medication
DSM 5 Criteria
Prognosis of PTSD is most promising when these conditions are met
Less severe trauma
Early intervention
Strongly founded social help
Trauma experienced from a distance
Trauma was short
No family/personal records of PTSD
The victim is a male
Q & A Session
Who is at Risk?
Anyone who is a victim of or has witnessed a traumatic event or is constantly exposed to life threatening situations
Ex. Survivors of..
Rape
Car accidents
Natural disasters
War
Children who are neglected (physically or verbally)
Pramedics
Prognosis
Prognosis for people with PTSD varies.
Depends on type of PTSD and situation occured.
Personal factors such as high self esteem, optimism, problem solving, and impulse control are all factors thought to improve prognosis for people with PTSD.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder:
a mental disorder that is triggered by a traumatic or possibly life threatenng event
What is PTSD?
There are 5 main types
Normal Stress Response
Acute Stress disorder
Uncomplicated PTSD
Comorbid PTSD
Complex PTSD
by: Maricris, Edreus, and Abigail
Normal Stess Response
Healthy adults experience discrete traumatic event in adulthood
Results in bad memories, feelings of unreality, and bodily tensions or distress
Acute Stress Disorder
Characterized by actions leading to
Confusion
Panic
Disassociation
Severe nausea
Inability to accomplish basic tasks
Inability to maintain relationships
Uncompilcated PTSD
Constant exposure to traumatic events
Avoiding things that remind that person of the event
Numbness in emotion
Hyperarousal
Comorbid PTSD
Joined with one or more psychiatric disability
ex. depression, alcoholism
Complex PTSD
Most severe
Found in people who have been constantly exposed to traumatic experiences, especially in childhood
Often diagnosed with personality disorders (ex. disassocitive disorder)
PTSD is triggered by exposure to actual threats of death, fatal injuries and sexual violation
Must result from exposure to one of the following
Direct experience to traumatic event
Witness of a traumatic event
Traumatic event happened to someone whom the person is closely associeted with
Repeated exposure to details of traumatic event
Reliving the Event
Memories of the traumatic event can come back at any period of time
Experience the same fear that they felt while in the traumatic incident
Nightmares
Flashbacks
Irritated or scared of things such as a sound or a scent
Avoiding Situations
Avoid situations that remind them of event
Avoid talking about the event
They may avoid crowds because they feel it’s unsafe
They may avoid driving cars because of a traumatic car accident
Negative Outlook
May view themselves and other people differently because of the trauma
May not be able to build positive and loving relationships with people
May believe the world is a dangerous place that can’t be trusted
Hyperarousal
Hyperarousal: being constantly alert, even when unnecssary
May be in constant fear of danger, they may also become easily angry
May have trouble sleeping
Trouble focusing
Disturbed by loud noises
May have trouble keeping eye contact
Cognitive Therapy
Goal: understand their thoughts on the event can and identify what causes them stress and what causes the symptoms to worsen.
Through the course of cognitive therapy, the patient discovers the reason as to why they’re upset. They then can learn how to replace these thoughts with less distressing thoughts.
Exposure Therapy
Goal: to have less fears about the traumatic event
Idea: people learn to fear their thoughts, feelings, and situations that remind them about the past.
Discuss their trauma to the therapist – learn to cope with their thoughts and feelings.
Emphasizes focusing on happy memories and practice relaxation
EDMR
Stands for:
Eye Movement Desensitization and reprocessing
.
Help change how the patient react to memories.
Focused on eye stimuli movement hand taps and sounds.
Disagreements about whether eye movement is a necessary component of therapy
Medication
Antidepressants- taken to ease feeling of sadness and worry (ex.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors – SSRIs
)
SSRIs consists of citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (such as Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft)
Chemical imbalance affects the way the patient feels (ex. if the person suffering through PTSD is depressed, they might lack serotonin. SSRIs raise levels of serotonin.)
Prognosis
Prognosis: the likely course of a disease or ailment.
A Day in the life
Stevens, A. (2016). Normal Stress Response [Photograph].
Works Cited
Mind. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/
Appstate. (2016). PTSD – course and prognosis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www1.appstate.edu/~hillrw/PTSD MM/PTSD_courseandprognosis.html
Appstate. (2016).PTSD – risk factors. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www1.appstate.edu/~hillrw/PTSD MM/PTSD_riskfactors.html
Association of Canada. (2016).PTSD Association of Canada. (n.d.). Help Starts Here. Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.ptsdassociation.com/
Canter for PTSD (2016). PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/treatment/therapy-med/treatment-ptsd.asp
Center for PTSD.(2016). PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/symptoms_of_ptsd.asp
NIMH.(2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. (2016). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml
Canadian Mental Health Association. (2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – Canadian Mental Health Association. (2016). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/#.VxWLI_krLIU
Psych Guides. (2014). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Causes and Effects. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-causes-and-effects/
Mayo. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/basics/definition/con-20022540
Medicinenet. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Read Up on PTSD Symptoms. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/mobileart.asp?articlekey=12578

Keep Healthy Today. (2015, January 18). Acute Stress Disorder [Photograph]. San Diego.
Health Green. (2016). Uncomplicated PTSD [Photograph]. Toronto.
MNT. (2016). Alcoholism [Photograph]. England.
Harvard Health Publications. (2010). Depression [Photograph]. Cambridge.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5 [Photograph]. Arlington.
Seahorn, J. J. (2010). Soldier with PTSD [Photograph]. Washington.

Marich, J. (n.d.). Avoidance Symptoms (2006) [Photograph]. Tampa.
Wordpress. (2013, November 5). Negative [Photograph].
We Known All About Dreams. (2015, June 14). Angry Face Person [Photograph].
P. (2010, May 2). Cognitive Therapy [Photograph]. Cambridge.
Nauret, R. (2016, April 23). Exposure Therapy [Photograph]. Massachusetts.
Young, K. (2010, March 15). EDMR [Photograph].
PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2016, February 23). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp
Medicinenet. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Read Up on PTSD Symptoms. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/mobileart.asp?articlekey=12578
PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2016, February 23). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp
APPSTATE. (2015, November 12). PTSD – risk factors. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www1.appstate.edu/~hillrw/PTSD MM/PTSD_riskfactors.html
Medicinenet. (2014, April 16). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Read Up on PTSD Symptoms. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/mobileart.asp?articlekey=12578
APPSTATE. (2013, May 14). PTSD – course and prognosis. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www1.appstate.edu/~hillrw/PTSD MM/PTSD_courseandprognosis.html
US Department for Veteran Care. (2015, August 14). PTSD: National Center for PTSD. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/treatment/therapy-med/treatment-ptsd.asp
US Department for Veteran Affairs. (2015, August 13). PTSD: National Center for PTSD. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/symptoms_of_ptsd.asp
P. (2009). THIS EMOTIONAL LIFE | PTSD | PBS. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from https:///www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aFs6695VyQ
Stevens, A. (2016). Normal Stress Response [Photograph].
Keep Healthy Today. (2015, January 18). Acute Stress Disorder [Photograph]. San Diego.
Health Green. (2016). Uncomplicated PTSD [Photograph]. Toronto.
MNT. (2016). Alcoholism [Photograph]. England.
Harvard Health Publications. (2010). Depression [Photograph]. Cambridge.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5 [Photograph]. Arlington.
Seahorn, J. J. (2010). Soldier with PTSD [Photograph]. Washington
Marich, J. (n.d.). Avoidance Symptoms (2006) [Photograph]. Tampa.
Wordpress. (2013, November 5). Negative [Photograph]. Toronto.
We Known All About Dreams. (2015, June 14). Angry Face Person [Photograph]. Orlando.
P. (2010, May 2). Cognitive Therapy [Photograph]. Cambridge
Nauret, R. (2016, April 23). Exposure Therapy [Photograph]. Massachusetts.
Young, K. (2010, March 15). EDMR [Photograph]. London.
DSM 5 Criteria
“Diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and symptoms from each of four symptom clusters: intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. The sixth criterion concerns duration of symptoms; the seventh assesses functioning; and, the eighth criterion clarifies symptoms as not attributable to a substance or co-occurring medical condition.” (PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2016, February 23). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp)
“Two specifications are noted including delayed expression and a dissociative subtype of PTSD, the latter of which is new to DSM-5. In both specifications, the full diagnostic criteria for PTSD must be met for application to be warranted.” (PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2016, February 23). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp)

Looking at History. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.ca/2011/03/murder-and-assault-crimes-against.html

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